Did a lot of studying today! I realized that my arm anatomy knowledge is next to nothing, even when looking at references. So, I spent a good deal of time pawing through some Michael Hampton books, doing some gestures, some constructive figure drawing, and then some photo studies. I'm not too entirely pleased with the outcome, but it allows me to face my problems head on and work through them. I'll be doing some more tomorrow and hope to see an improvement.
Here are a few of the sketches and studies I did. The bottom two were done from memory/imagination. The arms a bit wonky and the muscles are undefined, but I feel like it's better than I've been able to do on my own in the past.